IN simple definition mathematics is a knowledge which deals with structure, space, numbers, quantity and changes, from time in history people have been studying this complicated subject which sometimes forces some students out of their classes regardless if it is in America, Africa, Asia or Europe where the study has its roots from the Roman Empire.
Without having the need of seating in a classroom to learn mathematics in Serengeti as it follows the annual migration a dung beetle calculates its direction from the lunar position while grasses use proper calculation to influence wildebeests, zebra, gazelles and other antelopes to move from one place to another around the ecosystem which covers more than 30,000 square kilometers.
History shows that ancestors of wildebeests evolved in the southern part of Africa about 2.5 million years ago. Due to different changes in their natural ecology, these antelopes splitting into two groups, and scientists believe that it was caused by competition for new grazing ground.
The splitting gave rise to the group of black wildebeest which decided to remain in the original place, blue wildebeests that are more strong, bigger and inquisitive than their fellow that is why they decided to be courageous and look for new pasture and decided to migrate to East Africa from about one million years ago.
Before that about 3.7 million years ago, the whole area on south Sahara in Africa experienced severe climate which was enhanced by more changes about 2.5 million years ago the northern part of Tanzania which experienced a super volcano in the area around Mount Kilimanjaro.
Unaware of what nature was putting in place for them, from South Africa more than one million years ago blue wildebeests moved to East Africa, that was the time when nature allowed savannah with different species of plants to expand.
Scientists estimate that the planet Earth is covered by more than 315,000 species of plant which silently hold an upper hand above other terrestrial creatures of the world, powered by photosynthesis process these are gorgeous creatures which were described by one great philosopher who said “notice how the flowers grow, they don’t toil or spin but I tell you not even Solomon (Suleiman) in all his splendors was dressed like one of them.”
From those days the presence of volcanic soil around the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem is very beautiful because of availability of flowers which bear fruits and seeds that create good supply of food for animals in Serengeti and other national parks.
Flowers make about 90 percent of all living plant species, this mean that without these beautiful plants happiness would be a mystery thing in the world because food on our table while wild fruits for primates and grasses for herbivorous communities in the tropical savannah would be scarce and disturb the whole food web.
Plants are the main supplier of food for insects, birds and animals while trees, bushes and grasses form a very big air filter which take out carbon dioxide to create conducive environment for other creatures to thrive on the planet Earth from about 450 million years ago when the first land plant evolved and thrived following advancement of the ancient photosynthesis process.
In the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem there is no a clocks arm which tells wildebeests the time to move from one place to another, every year at the end of November, short rains fall here to become a signal for the migratory animals which arrive in prime areas such as Seronera and Ndutu.
During the short rains which last to December and stimulate the growth of fresh and nutritious grasses and attract 250,000 zebras, 300,000 antelopes and more than 1,300,000 wildebeests which bear more than 40,000 calves per day to build a strongest group of grazers on Earth who depend on the strength of photosynthesis.
Scientists say photosynthesis work on a leaf which is a trademark for more than 100,000 species of plants which dominate different ecosystems throughout the world, mathematically the leaf evolved to harbor and enable this process to work efficiently when nature placed this sheet on top of a plant where it’s able to collect enough energy from the Sun and affect life of animals including wildebeests.
In Serengeti as the population grows it cause competition for food among wildebeests as the largest group and against others species, at the beginning of April this situation force the first group of these animals to migrate northward, scientists say the movement is caused by curiosity to search for new source of fresh grasses and the need to get into the right place at the right time of the year.
At the beginning of May, wildebeests start to move northward again, at this time of the year an interdependent relationship arise from all animals involved, being in the front position zebras use their wider mouth armed with powerful jaws to cut down strong grasses, this allow fresh grasses to grow as a good supply for the trailing wildebeests.
During their journey these animals through different vegetation, according to needs, geographical condition which include the length of drought and wet seasons, the size, width and colour of a leaf differs from one specie to another with some having protective Epidermis with hairs while others reduce the number of stomata to control loss of water at the midday when the Sun becomes punitive.
In Serengeti as the drought period arrivals, at the end of May wildebeests are required to repay the service they had received from zebras, as grasses become dry wildebeests use their powerful nose to locate rainfall far away from the location, this makes June to be a month of struggle for fresh supply of grasses.
Meanwhile scientists say large leaves poses large more stomata which work efficiently in a network which involves Xylem carries water and Phloem which transport organic nutrients in vascular plants since the two mechanism evolved about 400 million years ago followed by well developed stomata which evolved on ancient plants about 360 million years ago.
Scientists say with the assistance from photosynthesis which put water vapor in the sky, experienced wildebeest bull will justify their supremacy by sniffing in the air to pinpoint the right direction of rainfall and trigger another stage of this epic journey to follow another supply of food from seasonal plants.
Among different species of plants, while supporting the stem roots use big force to penetrate deep into the ground to collect different nutrients materials of soil but leaves calculate their activities according to time and requirements.
This impact life in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem, the month of September with instincts driving them to what photosynthesis has made for them, wildebeests will risk their lives and cross Mara river which is infested with hungry crocodiles with deadly jaws, whatever happens they go for a fresh supply at Maasai Mara game reserve in Kenya.
Although a stem used is to carry branches but its primary duties is to push leaves to the required height where they are able to capture sunlight which is used during Photosynthesis proses, the stem is the main storage chamber of the whole plant.
It is within the stem where water and other important syrups are stored that is when the network is affected through biological or physical attacks the life that plant come to an end, because Xylem tissues transport water from the roots to leaves where Photosynthesis proses works to support the whole plant.
A stem is supported by roots which form a network under the ground because they are the first to emerge from a seed during the initial stage of growth, from that point the network creates a unique relation with fertile soil and different decomposing agents who produce nutrients from manure of wildebeests and others.
As we have seen different species have different sizes of leaves according to needs and environmental condition which affect width and length of a leaf from one plant to another, to protect themselves from attacks some have their leaves equipped the thorns, hairs and toxins with unpleasant smell which frighten their enemies.
Scientists say to avoid unbearable loss of water, during drought season plant shade off their leaves because it is estimated that in a single leaf on one square meter there between 1,000 and 100,000 stomata depending on the specie and geographical position where the plant is found.
It is estimated that after every 60 seconds one stomata is shut or reopened in order to allow smooth gasses exchange whereby plants remove Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release Oxygen, addition this unique process produce water vapor that cool the environment.
Moreover through Photosynthesis plants recycle Carbon dioxide to produce clean Oxygen which support life on the planet, scientists say the complex proses is mathematically implanted after every 12 hours which means that in most parts of the world it takes place at night when most insects, bird and animals are resting.
The above accounts shows that Photosynthesis process is implemented through two stages, the initial stage depends on sunlight while the second one takes place when the Sun is down, during day time plants produce starch and glucose while after sunset their primary product is something else.
Glucose power the wildebeest to cross the savannah but different researches indicate that plant produce their own food according specific need which allows 95 percent of all nutrients to be consumed after every 12 hours.
With the super action taking place on leaves of trees, bushes and grasses, wildebeests stay in Maasai Mara game reserve of Kenya for two months only before heading southward to their promised land in Serengeti on October to restart their epic journey in the southern part of Serengeti national park.
email@example.com Mobile: 0754362330